In this case all risks associated with such placement, all gains and losses from changes in the market value of the purchased securities are financial sowy result of the Bank. In Western Europe the transition to credit banking houses and commercial banks occurred in the second half of the XVII century, in the US the history of banking begins since the second half of the XVIII century The first attempt to create a commercial Bank in Russia was taken in Pskov Governor Afanasy Ordin-Nashokina, but this the idea has not been approved by the Central government. Therefore, it is not with- all right. Main clients blunt were traders, merchants (hence the name "commercial the Bank"). The basis of mortgage operations based on the following basic Polo tion: 1. Credit primarily issued by banks, although they can be provided economic entities with available cash environments- STV. The interest for the BAP dit is accrued from the date of actual use. Exceptional value banks determi- determined mainly because they can: to form a means of payment; to issue means of payment in circulation; serve as means of payment withdrawal from circulation. Medieval money-changing offices were predecessors ban cov, and the money changers — the predecessors of bankers; they took the cash nye deposits with the merchant for storage and specialized in money exchange different cities and countries. Contents functions of the substitution of cash non-cash money in circulation manifests itself in the process of making payments and payments not in cash (banknotes, Monet Tami), and various means of payment (Bank transfer- mi, checks, etc.). Central banks may have a mixed form of ownership in the capital, when the capital of a Central Bank owned by the state to the extent, and the part is in the hands of legal and/or physical . The second important principle, which is based on the activity commercial banks, is economic independence, under- one who knew and economic liability of the Bank for the results of its her activity. Banks, staffed by experienced financial system, can give expert advice, especially when the issue it should optimize the utilization of the loan, savings, investment the training funds. Therefore, it is not with- all right. The provision of collateral loan is made in accordance with the regulations on the procedure for provision by the Central Bank of the United States secured loans from banks March 13, 1996, No.
Ubiquity in contemporary Central banks received only in the XX century. 3. This mediation is carried out by redistributed- division of funds temporarily surplus to the process circulation of monetary funds of legal entities and cash income individuals. 5. First, Central banks originated more than 300 years ago.
The reallocation of resources is performed horizontally economic public relations — from the lender to the borrower. Release them into circulation imple- carried out in the form of records to the client's account the amount of credit money. From the perspective of the repayment period and the quality of collateral call the loan is considered the most liquid asset of the Bank article after the petty cash. Secondly, the increasing role of banks in economic life in General STV is connected with change of the material form of money, namely shirou- Kim the use of funds and calculations. In addition to the usual Bank loan, there is also indicia- vanny credit. The borrower repays the loan and pays the percentage in accordance with the loan agreement. The functions of the Central Bank for many decades fairly constant. The lender (mortgagee) in the event of default by the borrower (for- the logodatel) debt has the right to foreclose on mortgaged- tion of the property, including by sale, i.e. Pledge as a means of securing the fulfillment of obligations to the credit Thor is governed by the Law of the Russian Federation dated 29 may 1992 No.
However, the independence of the centre Federal Bank has its limits.
Entrepreneurs are more popular mortgage with OS- the etch of the mortgaged property from the mortgagor, as it allows them to continue to do business using the mortgaged property.